What is Management? Definitions, Characteristics, Function


What is Management?

Management is necessary to run all types of organizations. Proper management is the secret of successful organizations. Management with an association implies completing things and through other individuals to accomplish its goals.

Management is universal. It is a very popular and acceptable term. All organizations – business, political, cultural or social use management for running a smooth organization and getting done on time.

Definitions of Management

“Management is an art of knowing what to do when to do and see that it is done in the best and cheapest way”.

According to Peter Drucker

“Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages the business and manages managers and manages workers and work”.

According to James L. Lundy

“Management is principally the task of planning, coordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.”

According to George R. Terry

“Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating, and controlling, performed to determine and accomplish state;] objectives by the use of human beings and other resources.”

5 Functions of Management


Planning is systematic thinking about ways and means for the achievement of pre-decided objectives. It is a methodical method for settling on choices today that will influence the organization in the future.

According to KOONTZ,

“Planning is deciding in advance – what to do when to do & how to do. It bridges the gap from where we are & where we want to be.”

It is so important that “all managers plan, whether at the top, middle or bottom of
the organizational structure.


Once the plans made the next step is to organize activities of the organization, as in recognizing the tasks, ordering them, allotting duties to subordinates and apportioning the assets.

An organization can work effectively only if it well managed.so, for that we need three things to enough capital, well-trained staff, and raw material so that the organization can run smoothly.


Staffing means filling the empty positions in the organization to provide the right manpower in the right position.it does not include only the selection and training of the employee, but also include putting them in the right position at the right time.

It thus requires defining manpower requirements, selecting candidates, training
them and looking after them and the activities they perform.


Directing is the key component to running a smooth and effective organization. To knowing the staff, what they have to do. it is the responsibility of the manager to provide the right direction. Getting the work with employees it is not an easy task. It involves the achievement of organization goals by subordinating or satisfying individual goals.


Controlling systems refers to all the processes that leaders create to monitor success. Therefore it measures performance against objectives and plans; indicates where negative deviations exist and by putting-in right activity guarantees achievement of plans and destinations.

6 Characteristics of Management

Goal Oriented

Management is goals oriented, it helps to achieve the goals of the organization. Management makes the plan to reach the destination of the organization.

Invisible Force

Management cannot be seen nor touch, but you can feel the existence of the management in the organization. Management works as an invisible force. It is easier to feel the presence of mismanagement Universal activity:

Group Activity

Management is a group activity. Management cannot be complete in individual, it involves

the group of people. The management cannot be performed in isolation. Every person has a different responsibility. the organazation goal cannot be achieved by any individual or a single department.it only can be achieved by all department effort.

Need at All Levels

Management needs at all level of organization. Management must be from CEO to Salesmen of the company. Management helps in the upper level to make policies and plans, In Middle-level management helps in to look after the policies and plans and in low-level management helps in to implement the policies which are made by the upper-level employees.

Art as well as Science

Management is both an art and a science. It is called an art because managing requires certain skills which are personal possessions of managers. Science provides the knowledge & art deals with the application of knowledge and skills.


Management is a continuous process. It is not an ending process.for example planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling are performed by all the managers all the time.

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3 Level of Management

Upper Level

This is the highest level of the organization. Which includes the board of members, CEO, CFO & CTO, and many others as well. The upper level of management makes the objectives and set the goals for the organization.

Middle Level

It is the second and most important level of the organization. It creates a relationship between the upper and lower level, and it is the way between the upper and lower. Middle level includes departmental heads, zone head, and managers, They are responsible for implementing and controlling plans and strategies which are made by the top level.

Lower Level

Lower Level is also called ground or functional level management the ground level of management. it includes first line managers, supervisors and many more. The lower level plays a crucial in the organization. Because it helps in reducing wastage and improving the quality and quantity of output.

5 Principles of Management

Division of work

In every organization division of work should be implemented because it helps in to increase the productivity of the organization. Division of work should be on the basis of capacity, ability, and aptitude.

Unity of Command

The command must come from a single person or authority. If multiple persons or authorities will command, it will just create confusion for the employees. So, the principles mean that employee should receive orders from one superior only.

Unity of Direction

It means that the functioning of the organization should be smoothly and properly. In every organazation, there should be ahead and the directions must flow downward.


It requires everything well placed and a place assured for everyone. The absence of order means chaos. Its presence ensures stability and efficiency.


Equity must be in every organization. All the employees should be treated as equal.because it removes conflicts and gives confidence to the employees.

Elements of Management

  • Management is a continuous process.
  • This process consists of planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling.
  • It utilizes both human and other resources.
  • It is followed by the end goal to achieve predetermined objectives.