What is Communication? Principles, Process , Importance , Barriers

What is Communication?

Communication is a simple process of exchange of knowledge from one person to another. Communication is a two-way process wherein one person shares his knowledge, ideas, feelings to others. Communication can happen between two or more person. It involves a continuous process of telling, listening, and understanding between the people.

Principles of effective communication

1. Principle of Clarity—

Clarity of the communication is must for effective communication, and clarity can overcome barriers to communication.

2. Principle of Integrity

All the communication must be formed in a systematic way to support the integrity of the formal organization.

3. Principle of making Informal Organisation

The manager should make informal groups of the employees because it helps the employees to communicate easily.

4. Principle of participation

The communication takes place among two or more people it’s a two talk. So, both the sender and receiver should part in communication.

Process of Communication

communication process

1. Sender—

The sender is the person who takes in initiatives to start the conversations and share his ideas, thoughts, knowledge to others is known as the sender.

2. Ideas—

Ideas is a subject matter that tells the ideas of sender non-verbal methods as such body language, symbols, gestures etc to translate the information into words. ideas involve the matter of communication e.g. opinion, attitude, views, suggestion, order etc.

3. Encoding—

Encoding means expressing the message in a verbal way. it involves expressing the message in words and symbols i.e words, the way of tone, etc.

4. Channel—

Channel is a way through sender convey his message to the receiver. it can be radio, telephone, mobile, internet etc.

5. Receiver—

The receiver is the person to whom the message is meant for. The degree of knowledge of the subject matter, experience, trust, and relationship shared by the sender.

6. Feed-back—

Feedback is the response of the message from receiver.it could be verbal or non-verbal.it is necessary to ensure that receiver has got the message of the sender.

Channels of communication

Communication may be classified as:
1. Formal communication

2. Informal communication

3. Horizontal communication

4. Vertical Communication

1. Formal communication

Formal communication is an official communication among the employees of the organization. It takes place within the line of authority. It is designed to make sure that necessary information flows smoothly and accurately. The downward and upward communication between superior and his colleagues should be in a formal way. Formal communication helps to avoid delay in decision making, grievances etc.

2. Informal Communication

Informal communication emerges wherever there is a group of men and women working together. The informal channel takes place because of common interest between people in the organization who share information with each other. It generally carries rumors and it is not possible to fix responsibility for the distorted information. It serves as a safety valve for the emotions of the employees.

3. Vertical Communication;

Vertical communication refers to the communication between top executives and their employees. vertical communication may be upward or downward. Upward communication flows from low to the top, low executives to a top level in the form of discussions, suggestions, etc. Downward communication refers to the top to low, in the form of orders, instructions, rules.

4. Horizontal Communication

Horizontal communication takes place among the employees equally. Basically, It helps in creating coordination between different departments and divisions.


1. Means of Coordination

Communication is an important part of making the organization motivated and works-oriented because it coordinates with worker and removes problem regularly.

2. Helps in socializing

Communication also helps in socializing. because we are a human being we share our secret and talk with family members, friends & etc. So, without communication, we can not survive.

3. Planning Becomes Easy:

Once communication starts in the organization planning becomes easy because it helps the managers to make a realistic plan that can be achieved easily. So, communication helps to make plan easy.

4. Help to be motivated

Communication helps the employees to get motivated because communication removes grievances and transfer the information quickly. So, communication helps to get motivated.


1. Mutual trust

Communication is not possible when there will not be mutual trust and understanding between superior and subordinates. So without mutual trust, effective communication will not take place.

2. Fear

Sometimes subordinates do not disclose the truth fully because of the fear of the result.it misleads the manager to make plans for the organizations. So fear of telling the truth is also a barrier of the communication.

3. Cultural Barriers

Cultural is that part of the human being from that everyone lives their life. as the world is getting digitalize, people from different countries are working together and they have their own society, thought, traditions & etc. So sometimes culture creates a communication gap.

4. Attitude Barriers

In the large organization, they face the problem of behavior problem among the employees because some employees are the introverts or just people who are not very social. they might mislead the subordinates or superiors about the report so that can create the problem for the organization.