Methods of Training: On Job Training and Off the Job training


What is Training?

Training is a key need of every organization willing to enhance the overall skills and capabilities of their working staff. Better trained staff has more chances of performing efficiently with fewer errors. Training not only provides benefits to the organization but workers also get benefitted from it in the same way. They learn new things which enhances their skills and knowledge thereby improving the chances of future growth and development.

The right type of training is the much-needed thing if an organization wants to have talented and high-skilled labor. Training provided by the organization is of two types: – On-the-job-training and off-the-job training. Both of these training types are decided as per the work profile of employees as one follows a practical approach of learning (on-the-job-training) and the other follows a theoretical approach of learning (off-the-job-training).

On-the-job training as the name suggests is training that is provided at an actual job location involving ‘hands-on training. Employees are made familiar with the working situation by giving them first-hand experience of how to use machines, tools, and equipment, materials, etc. On the other hand, off-the-job training is one that is provided to employees at the site which is away from the actual workplace. The motive behind giving training away from the workplace is to give them a stress-free environment so that they pay full attention to learning. All relevant study material is provided by trainers to trainees for giving them complete theoretical knowledge. 

Methods of On the Job Training

Various methods of on-the-job-training are as discussed below: – 


Coaching is a training method under which instructions are provided to workers by experienced staff on how to perform their work. It is one-to-one training where the trainer is easily able to identify the weak areas and then focus on them. Workers are also easily able to find answers to their queries via demonstration and instructions given by their superiors.


Mentoring training is provided to people on the managerial level and focus is made on the development of attitude. Instructions are given by senior managers to their immediate subordinates for carrying out day-to-day activities. It is also one-to-one training just like coaching where managers act as a mentor to subordinate guiding them on how to handle difficult situations easily.


Apprenticeship is a training type given to people who are in trade, craft, and technical fields where long-term learning is required for gaining proficiency. Trainees work as an apprentice for a longer period under experts and are under direct supervision. Apprenticeship is a mixture of both on-the-job well as classroom training. This training may continue for 3-4 yrs. as apprentices need to learn till the time period, they become experts in their field. It is an expensive type of training in which apprentices are also paid remuneration as per the apprenticeship agreements.


Understudy is a type of training where a superior gives the training to a subordinate as his understudy or assistant. The subordinates learn a lot from their superiors via experience and observation by participating in day-to-day operations handling. The main motive behind carrying out understudy training is to prepare subordinates for assuming full responsibilities in case if a vacancy arises out of retirement, transfer, promotion, or death of his/her superior.

Job rotation

Job rotation is a process where employees are trained by shifting them to other related jobs in order to make them well-versed with other job backgrounds. Under this type, employees learn by rotating through a series of closely-linked jobs. People not only get knowledgeable with different jobs but it also helps them in reducing boredom caused by performing the same type of work again and again.

Job instructional training

Job instructional training is a step-by-step training method where the trainer gives instructions to workers on performing the job roles. At first, the trainer gives a job overview to trainees along with desired results that need to be attained. Then trainer demonstrates the skills needed for performing the job in an efficient manner. Now, workers perform the job roles as per their acquired skills set or expertise and they are finally asked to give their feedback on the training program. They can also ask if they have any queries related to training. 

Methods of off the job Training

The methods of off-the-job-training are explained below: – 

Special Lectures

A special lecture is a classroom type of training where employees are given lectures by trainees regarding job requirements and the necessary skill set required to perform that role. Workers are trained by experts from professional institutions in classrooms or workshops where they impart complete job knowledge. Special lectures are mainly organized in order to make employees well-versed with their respective job roles and clear all their queries arising out of a lecture.

Vestibule training

Vestibule training is also called near-the-job training where workers are given training in a prototype environment that is quite similar to the actual one. It is given to office staff, technical staff, and employees who learn about operations of tools and equipment away from the real work floor. Once workers are trained in such conditions, then they are moved to the actual workshop

Case studies

A case study is a process where a problem or situation is presented in front of trainees in the form of a case study. The trainees are then required to resolve it using their learning from the training program. 

Management games

Management games are one where groups are formed by dividing the trainees. They are then presented with simulated marketplace situations and asked to resolve the problems by applying their learnings. 


It is a method of training where an artificial environment quite similar to an actual work environment is used for training people. Trainees learn about the operation of machines and equipment by using one which looks alike to machines they are going to use in the actual workplace. Simulation is a common type of training used by companies for training staff who are going to work on machines involving a lot of risks so they are first trained on similar designed machines away from the workplace.