Basically there are four types of Motivation Theory of Management. These are the following :
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
This theory was proposed by Abraham Maslow and is based on the assumption that people are motivated by a series of five universal needs. These needs are ranked, according to the order in which they influence human behaviour, in hierarchical fashion.
- Physiological Needs are deemed to be the lowest-level needs. These needs include needs such as food and water.
- Safety Needs – the needs for shelter and security become the motivators of human behavior.
- Social Needs include the need for belongingness and love.
- After social needs have been satisfied, ego and esteem needs become the motivating needs.
- The highest need in Maslow’s hierarchy is that of self-actualization; the need for self- realization, continuous self-development, and the process of becoming all that a person is capable of becoming.
ERG Theory of Motivation
Alderfer’s theory us called the ERG theory – Existence, Relatedness, and Growth. Clatyon Alderfer reworked Maslow’s Hierarchy to align it more closely with empirical research.
- Existence refers to our concern with basic material existence requirements: what Maslow called physiological and safety needs.
- Relatedness refers to the desire we have for maintaining interpersonal relationships: similar to Maslow’s social/love need, and the external component to his esteem need.
- Growth refers to an intrinsic desire for personal development; the intrinsic component of Maslow’s esteem need, and self-actualization.
ERG theory argues, like Maslow, that satisfied lower-order needs lead to the desire to satisfy higher-order needs; but multiple needs can be operting as motivators at the same time, and frustration in attempting to satisfy a higher-level need can result in regression to a lower-level need.
McClelland’s Theory of Needs
According to David McClelland, regardless of culture or gender, people are driven by three motives :
- Achievement : The need for achievement is characterized by the wish to take responsibility for finding solutions to problems, master complex tasks, set goal, get feedback on level of success.
- Affiliation : The need for affiliation is characterized by a desire to being, an enjoyment of teamwork, a concern about interpersonal relationships, and a need to reduce uncertainty.
- Power : The need for power is characterized by a drive to control and influence others, a need to win arguments, a need to persuade and prevail. According to McClelland, the presence of these motives or drives in an individual indicates a predisposition to behave in certain ways.
McGregor Theory X and Y
Douglas McGregor observed two diametrically opposing view points of managers about their employees, one is negative called “Theory of X” and one is positive called “Theory of Y”
Theory of X : Following are the assumptions of managers who believe in the “Theory of X” in regard to their employees:
- Employees dislike work: if possible avoid the same.
- Employees must be coerced, controlled or threatened to do the work.
- Employees avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction.
- Most employees consider security of job, most important of all other factors in the job and have very little ambition.
Theory of Y : Following are the assumptions of managers who believe in the “Theory of y” in regard to their employees:
- Employees love work as play or rest.
- Employees are self-directed and self-controlled and committed to the organizational objectives.
- Employees accept and seek responsibilities. Innovative spirit is not confined to managers alone, some employees also possess it.
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