Meaning of Organisational Behaviour
Organisational Behaviour simply is a process of studying & understanding the behaviour of individuals in the organisation. It is a part of the management process which aims at improving the performance of organisations through understanding & controlling human behaviour. Models of Organisational Behaviour are discussed in this article.
It is through the organisational behaviour that organisations are able to understand the behaviour of the people working with them. Once the organisation got to know about their employees, then the organisation can easily influence & motivate them towards achievement of goals.
It helps to improve the relations among the employees & increase their efficiency. There are two main factors which we will study under organisation behaviour term: Individual’s nature & the organisation’s nature.
Models of Organisational Behaviour
Models of organisational behaviour have simple techniques which help in understanding the behaviour of people working with the organisation. Following are the models of organisational behaviour are as follows:
Autocratic Model of Organisational Behaviour
Autocratic model is a model which is characterized by power, formal authority & strength. Under the autocratic model, decision making power lies only with top authorities & managers. Low- level employees do not have any right or power to participate in the decision making of organisations.
Only managers or owner have the power to control the work functions of the organisation. Employees work under the strict supervision of their employers & follow their directions. Suggestions and ideas of employees are not taken into consideration by authorities under this model.
This brings down the job satisfaction & morale of employees. According to this model, managers have more knowledge regarding the business as compared to employees & therefore they can take decisions in a proper way. However, the employer needs to supervise each & every activity of their employees to assure that they are going as per plan. This requires more effort & time on the part of employers.
Custodial Model of Organisational Behaviour
The custodial model is characterized by providing security to employees. Under this model, all frustration & insecurity of employees that was under the autocratic model was overcome.
This led to improving the employer-employee relations in an organisation. Here, employees are not dependent upon employers but upon the organisation. If an organisation has better welfare & development programmes, then the performance of employees will automatically be improved.
Employees are happy & satisfied under this model due to economic benefits in the form of wages & several other forms they get from the organisation. However the psychological needs of employees are not taken into consideration here. Employees under this are not strongly motivated but give only passive cooperation.
Supportive Model of Organisational Behaviour
The supportive model is characterized by leadership with a managerial orientation of support. Here there is no role of power, authority & control unlike the autocratic model or custodial model.
This model aims to create better & supportive working environment for employees working with organisation. Instead of just providing them with incentives & payments for their work, managers should motivate and evaluate the job performance of employees.
It is assumed that workers are not lazy & can make a better contribution if trained & motivated properly. This model considers the psychological needs of employees rather than just security needs. It will improve employer-employee friendly relations with a high degree of trust & confidence.
Collegial Model of Organisational Behaviour
It is a simple extension of a supportive model. It focuses on partnership where employer-employee works as a team with a high degree of teamwork. There is no superior & subordinates relationship between employer & employees under this model. Both works as active partners with equally participating in all roles & functions of the organisation. Workers & manager have better relations & respect for each other. Workers are not under strict rule & regulations.
They participate actively in all decision-making of the organisation. Workers here happily accept &fulfil their respective responsibilities. This brings greater team spirit in organisation improving the overall efficiency of the organisation. The managers ensure positive working environment & act as a coach of the team. He monitors & controls the performance of the whole team.
Normative Model of Organisational Behaviour
Normative model is a model which aims at achieving the optimum results. It is concerned with determining the activities that should be performed to increase the overall efficiency of the organisation.
Here attention is paid on deriving the most efficient results out of action. Normative model is an integral part of various management theories. It clearly specifies what should or should not be done by employees & managers to achieve the desired results with high efficiency.
Ecological Model of Organisational Behaviour
Ecological model is simply concerned with the environment in which business exists. Every business exists in some environment but no one exists in a vacuum. The environment continuously affects the functioning of the business directly & indirectly.
The role & study of the business environment become quite important which is deal under the ecological model. It is an environment that continuously supplies inputs to business which are used by them to manufacture their products. Interaction between environment & business is termed as ecological interaction which is only termed as the basis of the ecological model.
Non – Ecological Model of Organisational Behaviour
In Non-Ecological is simply the opposite of the ecological model. According to this model, the business environment is not changing but remain stable. Unlike the ecological model, it does not consider environmental factors complex that keeps on changing. This model does not hold importance in today’s world where business environment keeps on changing always. It fails to predict what will happen in future.
Ideographic model of Organisational Behaviour
Ideographic model are generally special types of models that deal with special or unique types of situations. When the micro-level analysis is required in organisational behaviour, Ideological model is found useful. Situations like a single group, single nation, individual, single organisation, historical episodes are dealt with under this model.
Nomothetic Model of Organisational Behaviour
Nomothetic model are model which deals with general situations. Unlike ideographic models, these models are concerned with macro-level analysis in organisational behaviour. It is characterized with generalization, hypothesis & laws that studies behaviour regularity & correlation between two different variables.
Situations like cross individual, cross nation, cross-group & cross-organisation are studies under this model. It simply says that individuals, groups & structure have an impact on behaviour in the organisation. After studying these impacts, the outcome of the study is used to improve the organisational performance making it more effective.