What is DBMS? Advantages, Disadvantages, Characteristics & types


Meaning of Database Management System (DBMS)

Database management system simply refers to software which organize and manages a set of data in a database. It is a system which served as an interface in between the end users of data and database.  Database management system enable users to perform a variety of functions like creation of database, storing of data, data updation, table creation in database and lots more via the interface provided on software application. Various popular DBMS software are Oracle, MySQL, FoxPro, SQLite and Microsoft Access. Database is an organized collection of inter-related data, stored and accessed electronically from computer devices. It is designed and build for including data related to certain task. Data is organized in the form of tables, report, views and schema in database.

DBMS is a crucial technology which allow users for storing as well as retrieving data with utmost efficiency and appropriate security measures. Users can create the database as per their own requirements. This system also defines the rules for validation and manipulation of data for security of database. DBMS accepts the request for data from user through the application and directs the operating system to provide the specific data.

Advantages of Database Management System

Avoids database redundancy

DBMS is quite effective in controlling redundancy of data in record system. Data redundancy involves maintaining several copies of same data. It records all data in one single file of database which saves our storage space and enhance update as well as retrieval speed. Also, this system uses ACID (Atomicity, consistency, isolation and durability) and normalization properties. 

Data abstraction

Data abstraction is one of the key characteristics of DBMS. It involves hiding the complexities of data from basic users. DBMS hides unnecessary data from end users and just show them the relevant set of data required for completion of their task. This way, it makes easy for user to work by reducing the overhead of hidden complexities. 

Improved data sharing

DBMS has improved the sharing of data by end-users via developing a friendly environment. Data can be easily shared among multiple users within the organization by authorized users. It provides access to more and better-managed data which enables users in responding quickly to environmental changes.  

Enhanced security of data

There is a greater risk of data security breaches in case when they are multiple users to access the data. Every organization incurs a large amount of money, time and efforts for ensuring that their data is handled properly. Database management system provides such a framework where there is a better enforcement of data privacy and security policies. 

Minimize data inconsistency

DBMS avoids the inconsistency of data by controlling the data redundancy. There are more chances of data inconsistency when distinct version of same data appears at different places. When data is displayed only once in system records, it leads to better consistency of data due to which updated values are available immediately to all users. 

Better data integration

This system ensures better integration of data by providing a wider access to it. Users get a clearer view of big picture as well as an integrated view of organizational operations. This way it can be easily seen how the actions in one business segment influences the actions of another segment.  

Improved data access

DBMS provides an easy and very efficient data access to users by storing data in well sorted manner. Users can directly retrieve the data as per their requirements without a need to worry about excess or redundant records. All this saves a lot of time. 

Enhanced decision making

It has enhanced the decision making of organization by offering a wider access to better managed set of data. User are able to produce a good-quality of information when the underlying data is managed efficiently. In order to promote the accuracy, timeliness and validity of data, quality of data is served as a comprehensive approach. Whereas data quality if not guaranteed by DBMS but it provides such framework that facilitates the data quality initiatives.    

Improved end-user productivity

DBMS enables users to make quick and informed decisions in presence of accurate data. When data is combined with tools, it leads to transformation of raw data into a usable set of information. The difference in between the success and failure in global economy is dependent upon the quality of decisions. 

Disadvantages of Database management system

Cost of Hardware and software

DBMS require high speed processors with large memory size in order to run in an efficient manner. Such hardware components require huge cost as they are quite expensive. In addition to this, software’s which are run on such hardware is expensive too.

Data conversion cost

Whenever a company adopts a database system from old computer file-based system, it is required to convert the data files into database files. All such processes of converting data files into database are time consuming and costly. 

Maintaince cost

Database management system calls for regular maintaince of its system in order to work efficiently without any interruption. There are large expenses associated with maintaince of DBMS once it is made. 

Management complexity

DMBS is not a child game to run for organization as it involves a lot of complexities. At first, company must have good staff team with better management capabilities. Also, many times it is a difficult task for business to decide from where to pick data and where to save it. 

Cost of staff training

DBMS are complex system which require trained staff personnel’s for running smoothly. Organizations need to incur high cost for running training programmes in order to make workers capable of running database management system. 

Hight impact of failure

The impact of failure is high in database management as compared to file base system. It is because in DBMS whole data related to organization is stored in a single database and in case if database is damaged due to electric failure or data corruption, then whole data may be lost. 

Types of DBMS Systems

There are four types of DBMS systems which are discussed below: –  

Hierarchical Database

It is a DBMS system under which data is organized into a tree-like pattern. A hierarchical format (top-down to bottom-up) is followed for storing of data. Data is displayed using the parent-child relationship. Under this type of model, parents have many children whereas there is only one parent for all children.  

Relational Database

This is the easiest and most widely used model of the database management system. Normalizing data in rows and columns of the table is the main focus of the relational database model. This model is stored in structures and manipulated via SQL.

Network Database

A network database model is one that allows every child to have distinct parents. It enables addressing relationships of a more complex nature such as parts/orders many-to-many relationships. Entities are organized in graph type under this model and several paths can be used for accessing them. 

Object-oriented Database

Data is stored in the form of objects in an object-oriented database model. The structure within which data is displayed is termed, classes. The database is defined as the collection of databases storing both values and operations of data members. 

Characteristics of Database management system

Various characteristics of database management system are as discussed in points given below: – 

  1. DBMS for storing and manipulating the information uses a digital repository that is established on a server. 
  2. There are ACID properties within this system for maintaining data in healthy state in case of any failures.
  3. A clear and logical view of system used for data manipulation is provided by DBMS.
  4. DBMS facilitates in minimizing the complex relationship in between data.
  5. This system is composed of automatic backup and recovery procedures. 
  6. Data can be viewed from different aspects in accordance with user requirements via DBMS.
  7. DBMS provides a complete security of data.